Thou shalt not make to thyself a graven thing, nor the likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or in the earth beneath . It is also against the positive law of the Church, which visits the worst kinds of superstitions with severe punishments, and against the natural law inasmuch as it runs counter to the dictates of reason in the matter of man's relations to God.
Nor can Pantheism, which identifies God and the world, lead consistently to any but superstitious practices, however it may in theory disclaim such a purpose.
With regard to the subjective guilt attaching to them it must be borne in mind that no sin is mortal unless committed with full knowledge of its grievous wickedness and with full deliberation and consent.
Of these essential factors the first is often wanting entirely, and the second is only imperfectly present.
Now as in the past the rejection of Divine truth in the name of reason often opens the way to beliefs and practices which are at once unworthy of reason and dangerous to morality.
Superstition of any description is a transgression of the First Commandment: "I am the Lord thy God ,-- thou shalt not have strange gods before me. thou shalt not adore them nor serve them" ( Exodus 20:2-5 ).