In fact, many of the English terms used in brewing (malt, mash, wort, ale) are Anglo-Saxon in origin.
During the Middle Ages the monastic orders preserved brewing as a craft.
The strength of beer may be measured by the percentage by volume of ethyl alcohol.
Strong beers are in excess of 4 percent, the so-called light beers are fully fermented, low-carbohydrate beers in which enzymes are used to convert normally unfermentable (and high-calorie) carbohydrates to fermentable form.
Hops were in use in Germany in the 11th century, and in the 15th century they were introduced into Britain from Holland.
In 1420 beer was made in Germany by a fermentation process, so called because the yeast tended to sink to the bottom of the brewing vessel; before that, the type of yeast used tended to rise to the top of the fermenting product and was allowed to overflow or was manually skimmed.
In some countries, beer is defined by law—as in Germany, where the standard ingredients, besides water, are malt (kiln-dried germinated barley), hops, and yeast.
The latter is present in barley, but the former is made only during germination of the grain.
Specially bred strains of barley (generally low in nitrogen content) are used for malting.
show that barley or partly germinated barley was crushed, mixed with water, and dried into cakes.
When broken up and mixed with water, the cakes gave an extract that was fermented by microorganisms accumulated on the surfaces of fermenting vessels.) reported that Saxons, Celts, and Nordic and Germanic tribes drank ale.