Within a few hours the Japanese occupation of Harbin was complete.With the establishment of the puppet state of Manchukuo, the pacification of Manchukuo began, as volunteer armies continued to fight the Japanese.The Republic of China discontinued diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union in 1920, so many Russians found themselves stateless.When the Chinese Eastern Railway and government in Beijing announced in 1924 that they agreed the railroad would only employ Russian or Chinese nationals, the emigrees were forced to announce their ethnic and political allegiance. The Chinese warlord Zhang Xueliang seized the Chinese Eastern Railway in 1929.
After Russia's Great October Socialist Revolution in November 1917, more than 100,000 defeated Russian White Guards and refugees retreated to Harbin, which became a major center of White Russian émigrés and the largest Russian enclave outside the Soviet Union.
The planning and construction emulated major Chinese cities, in particular Bianjing (Kaifeng), although the Jin capital was smaller than its Northern Song prototype.
Many of the artifacts found there are on display in nearby Harbin.
Wanyan Aguda, the founder and first emperor (reigned 1115-1123) of the Jin dynasty (1115-1234), was born in the Jurchen Wanyan tribes who resided near the Ashi River in this region.
After Aguda's death, the new emperor Wanyan Sheng ordered the construction of a new city on a uniform plan.