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There were shops, where artisans worked on and sold pottery, stone-casting, bone-carving, and stone-carving.

There is evidence of an advanced stage of metallurgy.

The proto-language that is thought to be the ancestor of all Eastern Caucasian (“Alarodian”) languages, in fact, has words for concepts such as the wheel (which is first found in the Central Caucasus around 4000–3000 BCE), so it is thought that the region had intimate links to the Fertile Crescent (many scholars supporting the thesis that the Eastern Caucasians originally came from the Northern Fertile Crescent, and backing this up with linguistic affinities of the Urartian and Hurrian language to the Northeast Caucasus).

Johanna Nichols has suggested that the ancestors of Eastern Caucasians had been involved in the birth of civilization in the Fertile Crescent.

However, many others disagree, holding the Chechens to have lived in their present-day lands for over 10000 years.

Many scholars, such as Johanna Nichols hold that the Durdzuks were descended from extremely ancient migrations from the Fertile Crescent to the Caucasus, perhaps due to population or political pressures back in the Fertile Crescent.

Earlier finds show that extensive hunting was still practiced.

There was a lack of pig bones, demonstrating that they domestication of pigs hadn't yet spread into the region.

Near the Èrs lived a tribe known as the Nakhchradzor.The Durdzuks, a name the Georgians called the early medieval inhabitants of Ichkeria later, had a name derived from the settlement of Durdukka, near Lake Urmia.In addition to these, there is also the very name of Naxcivan (Nakhichevan, from Nakh Che Bun), and Lake Van (similarly, from Bun, although it may instead be from Urartian biani; it is nonetheless the Armenian rendering of the Ersh bun).Although all historians agree they were closely related, there is a wide variety of views on the nature of the relationship.According to ethnic Circassian Caucasus specialist Amjad Jaimoukha, at least "It is certain that the Nakh constituted an important component of the Hurrian-Urartian tribes in the Trans-Caucasus and played a role in the development of their influential cultures." It has been noted that at many points, Urartu in fact extended through Kakheti into the North Caucasus.

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