In the Third National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (1993; NIS-3), the most comprehensive federal source of information about the incidence of child maltreatment in the United States, Andrea J. Broadhurst find that family structure and size, poverty, alcohol and substance abuse, domestic violence, and community violence are contributing factors to child abuse and neglect.While these and other factors impact the likelihood of child maltreatment, they do not necessarily lead to abuse.(See Figure 3.1.) Under the Endangerment Standard higher incidence rates of physical and emotional neglect occurred among children living with only their fathers than among those living in other family structures.(See Figure 3.2.)Child protective services (CPS) workers are faced with the growing problem of substance abuse among families involved with the child welfare system.They incorporated research from the two surveys and additional chapters into the book Physical Violence in American Families: Risk Factors and Adaptations to Violence in 8,145 Families (1990).The factors contributing to child maltreatment are complex.It is important to understand that the causes of child abuse and the characteristics of families in which child abuse occurs are only indicators.
The 1975 National Family Violence Survey and the 1985 National Family Violence Resurvey, conducted by Murray A. Gelles, are the most complete studies of spousal and parent-child abuse yet prepared in the United States.NIS-3 found that under the Harm Standard (see Chapter 2 for a definition of the Harm Standard and Endangerment Standard), children in single-parent households were at a higher risk of physical abuse and all types of neglect than were children in other family structures.Children living with only their fathers suffered the highest incidence rates of physical abuse and emotional and educational neglect.According to "Child Maltreatment: Fact Sheet" (April 2006, which is maintained by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a family may also be at risk if: Psychological abuse can cause great harm to children but tends to be less well recognized than physical or sexual abuse or neglect.In "Family Dynamics Associated with the Use of Psychologically Violent Parental Practices" (Journal of Family Violence, April 2004), Marie-Hélène Gagné and Camil Bouchard identify four family characteristics that are likely to result in parental psychological violence.